使用MailCatcher作为开发环境邮件服务器

MailCatcher 运行一个超级简单的 SMTP 服务器,它可以捕获发送到它的任何消息并在 web 界面中显示。

运行 mailcatcher,将你最喜欢的应用程序设置为 smtp://127.0.0.1:1025,而不是默认的 SMTP 服务器,然后检查 http://127.0.0.1:1080,查看到目前为止的邮件。

file

ubuntu安装MailCatcher

sudo apt install ruby ruby-dev libsqlite3-dev build-essential
sudo gem install mailcatcher

运行

默认运行即可,更多参数如下

mailcatcher -h
Usage: mailcatcher [options]
        --ip IP                      Set the ip address of both servers
        --smtp-ip IP                 Set the ip address of the smtp server
        --smtp-port PORT             Set the port of the smtp server
        --http-ip IP                 Set the ip address of the http server
        --http-port PORT             Set the port address of the http server
        --http-path PATH             Add a prefix to all HTTP paths
        --no-quit                    Don't allow quitting the process
    -f, --foreground                 Run in the foreground
    -v, --verbose                    Be more verbose
    -h, --help                       Display this help information

Cmder + Windows Terminal + PhpStrom/PyCharm/IDEA

Cmder是一个可用于linux的便携式控制台虚拟器,可以让你在windows下使用linux命令。

Windows Terminal是Windows 10的控制台管理界面。

IDEA是广大开发人员的最爱。

本文介绍如何将Cmder整合到Windows Terminal和IDEA。

file

安装Cmder

可以去 https://cmder.net/ 下载最新的压缩文件,解压后点击Cmder.exe即可使用。如果已经安装了git for windows下载mini版本就可以了,否则可以下载包含git的full版本。

设置系统环境变量

以下d:\tools\Cmder是Cmder解压目录

CMDER_ROOT = d:\tools\Cmder

配置 Windows Terminal

生成guid

进入Power shell,输入New-Guid

PS C:\Users\Administrator> New-Guid

Guid
----
092f8948-9ea5-4928-bea7-a1f71938e717

修改 Windows Terminal 配置文件

点击Windows Terminal的下拉菜单,选择“配置”,会打开它的配置文件

增加

{
  "guid": "{092f8948-9ea5-4928-bea7-a1f71938e717}",
  "name": "Cmder",
  "commandline": "cmd.exe /k %CMDER_ROOT%\\vendor\\init.bat",
  "startingDirectory": "%USERPROFILE%",
  "icon": "%CMDER_ROOT%\\icons\\cmder.ico",
  "background": "#2e3436",
  "padding": "15",
  "fontFace": "Cascadia Code",
  "fontSize": 10
}

然后修改

"defaultProfile": "Cmder",

Windows Terminal 使用效果

点击Windows Terminal的加号,查看效果

file

配置 PhpStorm/IDEA/PyCharm

配置 PhpStorm

打开 PhpStrom 的设置,找到 Tools 下的 terminal 修改 Shell path"cmd" /k ""%CMDER_ROOT%\vendor\init.bat""

file

PhpStrom 配置后效果

file

NSIS完整实例(含服务的安装,运行前卸载)


# NetHalt - NSIS installer script
# Copyright (C) 2008 Daniel Collins <solemnwarning@solemnwarning.net>
# All rights reserved.
#
# Redistribution and use in source and binary forms, with or without
# modification, are permitted provided that the following conditions are met:
#
#    * Redistributions of source code must retain the above copyright
#      notice, this list of conditions and the following disclaimer.
#
#    * Redistributions in binary form must reproduce the above copyright
#      notice, this list of conditions and the following disclaimer in the
#      documentation and/or other materials provided with the distribution.
#
#    * Neither the name of the author nor the names of its contributors may
#      be used to endorse or promote products derived from this software
#      without specific prior written permission.
#
# THIS SOFTWARE IS PROVIDED BY THE AUTHOR ``AS IS'' AND ANY
# EXPRESS OR IMPLIED WARRANTIES, INCLUDING, BUT NOT LIMITED TO, THE IMPLIED
# WARRANTIES OF MERCHANTABILITY AND FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE ARE
# DISCLAIMED. IN NO EVENT SHALL THE AUTHOR BE LIABLE FOR ANY
# DIRECT, INDIRECT, INCIDENTAL, SPECIAL, EXEMPLARY, OR CONSEQUENTIAL DAMAGES
# (INCLUDING, BUT NOT LIMITED TO, PROCUREMENT OF SUBSTITUTE GOODS OR SERVICES;
# LOSS OF USE, DATA, OR PROFITS; OR BUSINESS INTERRUPTION) HOWEVER CAUSED AND
# ON ANY THEORY OF LIABILITY, WHETHER IN CONTRACT, STRICT LIABILITY, OR TORT
# (INCLUDING NEGLIGENCE OR OTHERWISE) ARISING IN ANY WAY OUT OF THE USE OF
# THIS SOFTWARE, EVEN IF ADVISED OF THE POSSIBILITY OF SUCH DAMAGE.

!include MUI2.nsh
!include LogicLib.nsh
!include nsDialogs.nsh

Name "NetHalt"
OutFile "nhclient.exe"

InstallDir $PROGRAMFILES\NetHalt
InstallDirRegKey HKLM "SOFTWARE\NetHalt" "InstallDir"

!define MUI_ABORTWARNING

!insertmacro MUI_PAGE_WELCOME
!insertmacro MUI_PAGE_LICENSE "COPYING"
!insertmacro MUI_PAGE_DIRECTORY
!insertmacro MUI_PAGE_INSTFILES

!insertmacro MUI_LANGUAGE "English"

Function .onInit
    nsisos::osversion

    ${If} $0 < 5
        MessageBox MB_OK "Windows 2000 (NT 5.0) or greater is required"
        Abort
    ${EndIf}
FunctionEnd

# Do local install
#
Section "NetHalt"
    SetShellVarContext all
    SetOutPath $INSTDIR

    # Stop all running nhtray.exe processes
    #
    StrCpy $0 "nhtray.exe"
    KillProc::KillProcesses

    # Check if the NetHalt service is installed
    #
    SimpleSC::ExistsService "nhclient"
    Pop $0

    # Stop+Remove the NetHalt service if it's installed
    #
    ${If} $0 == 0
        DetailPrint "Stopping NetHalt Client service..."
        SimpleSC::StopService "nhclient"

        DetailPrint "Removing NetHalt Client service..."
        SimpleSC::RemoveService "nhclient"
    ${EndIf}

    WriteRegStr HKLM "SOFTWARE\NetHalt" "InstallDir" $INSTDIR

    cinst::reg_write "dword" "SOFTWARE\NetHalt" "use_server" "0"
    cinst::reg_write "string" "SOFTWARE\NetHalt" "server_name" ""
    cinst::reg_write "dword" "SOFTWARE\NetHalt" "server_port" "0"
    cinst::reg_write "dword" "SOFTWARE\NetHalt" "server_refresh" "1800"

    cinst::reg_write "dword" "SOFTWARE\NetHalt" "warning" "300"
    cinst::reg_write "dword" "SOFTWARE\NetHalt" "abort" "0"
    cinst::reg_write "dword" "SOFTWARE\NetHalt" "delay" "0"
    cinst::reg_write "string" "SOFTWARE\NetHalt" "sdtimes" ""

    WriteUninstaller "$INSTDIR\uninstall.exe"

    File "src\nhclient.exe"
    File "src\evlog.dll"
    File "src\nhtray.exe"
    File "src\nhconfig.exe"

    # Add the event log source (evlog.dll) to the registry
    #
    WriteRegStr HKLM "SYSTEM\CurrentControlSet\Services\Eventlog\Application\NetHalt Client" "EventMessageFile" "$INSTDIR\evlog.dll"
    WriteRegDWORD HKLM "SYSTEM\CurrentControlSet\Services\Eventlog\Application\NetHalt Client" "TypesSupported" 0x00000007

    # Add the uninstaller to Add/Remove programs
    #
    WriteRegStr HKLM "SOFTWARE\Microsoft\Windows\CurrentVersion\Uninstall\NetHalt" "DisplayName" "NetHalt"
    WriteRegStr HKLM "SOFTWARE\Microsoft\Windows\CurrentVersion\Uninstall\NetHalt" "UninstallString" "$INSTDIR\uninstall.exe"
    WriteRegDWORD HKLM "SOFTWARE\Microsoft\Windows\CurrentVersion\Uninstall\NetHalt" "NoModify" 1
    WriteRegDWORD HKLM "SOFTWARE\Microsoft\Windows\CurrentVersion\Uninstall\NetHalt" "NoRepair" 1

    # Install and start the NetHalt service
    # TODO: Check for errors
    #
    DetailPrint "Installing NetHalt Client service..."
    SimpleSC::InstallService "nhclient" "NetHalt Client" "16" "2" "$INSTDIR\nhclient.exe" "" "" ""

    DetailPrint "Starting NetHalt Client service..."
    SimpleSC::StartService "nhclient"

    # Add nhtray.exe to the registry to run at login
    #
    WriteRegStr HKLM "SOFTWARE\Microsoft\Windows\CurrentVersion\Run" "NetHalt" "$INSTDIR\nhtray.exe"

    # Launch nhtray.exe
    #
    Exec '"$INSTDIR\nhtray.exe"'

    # Create shortcuts
    #
    CreateDirectory "$SMPROGRAMS\NetHalt"
    CreateShortCut "$SMPROGRAMS\NetHalt\Tray Icon.lnk" "$INSTDIR\nhtray.exe"
    CreateShortCut "$SMPROGRAMS\NetHalt\Configuration.lnk" "$INSTDIR\nhconfig.exe"
    CreateShortCut "$SMPROGRAMS\NetHalt\Uninstall.lnk" "$INSTDIR\uninstall.exe"
SectionEnd

Function un.onInit
    SetShellVarContext all
    ReadRegStr $INSTDIR HKLM "SOFTWARE\NetHalt" "InstallDir"

    MessageBox MB_YESNO "This will uninstall NetHalt, continue?" IDYES NoAbort
    Abort
    NoAbort:
FunctionEnd

Section "Uninstall"
    # Stop and remove the NetHalt service
    #
    DetailPrint "Stopping NetHalt Client service..."
    SimpleSC::StopService "nhclient"

    DetailPrint "Removing NetHalt Client service..."
    SimpleSC::RemoveService "nhclient"

    # Stop all running nhtray.exe processes
    #
    StrCpy $0 "nhtray.exe"
    KillProc::KillProcesses

    # Delete shortcuts
    #
    Delete "$SMPROGRAMS\NetHalt\Tray Icon.lnk"
    Delete "$SMPROGRAMS\NetHalt\Configuration.lnk"
    Delete "$SMPROGRAMS\NetHalt\Un-Install.lnk"
    Delete "$SMPROGRAMS\NetHalt"

    DeleteRegValue HKLM "SOFTWARE\Microsoft\Windows\CurrentVersion\Run" "NetHalt"
    DeleteRegKey HKLM "SYSTEM\CurrentControlSet\Services\Eventlog\Application\NetHalt Client"
    DeleteRegKey HKLM "SOFTWARE\Microsoft\Windows\CurrentVersion\Uninstall\NetHalt"

    Delete "$INSTDIR\nhclient.exe"
    Delete "$INSTDIR\evlog.dll"
    Delete "$INSTDIR\nhtray.exe"
    Delete "$INSTDIR\uninstall.exe"
    RMDir $INSTDIR
SectionEnd

NSIS实现安装前先停止并卸载旧版

以下脚本会先找到正在运行的程序和服务,停止并删除服务,然后杀掉正在运行的程序进程

    ;检查服务是否存在
    SimpleSC::ExistsService  "${SVCHOST_EXE_NAME}"
    Pop $0
    ;停止并删除服务
    ${If} $0 == 0
        DetailPrint "停止正在运行的打印服务"
        SimpleSC::StopService "${SVCHOST_EXE_NAME}" 1 30
        DetailPrint "删除已安装的打印服务"
        SimpleSC::RemoveService "${SVCHOST_EXE_NAME}"
    ${EndIf}
    ;检查主程序是否运行,如果正在运行则进行终止
    nsProcess::_FindProcess "${ANALYST_EXE_NAME}"
    Pop $R0
    ${If} $R0 = 0
      DetailPrint "停止正在运行的主程序"
      nsProcess::_KillProcess "${ANALYST_EXE_NAME}"
      Pop $R0
    ${EndIf}
    ;检查升级程序是否运行,如果正在运行则进行终止
    nsProcess::_FindProcess "${UPDATE_EXE_NAME}"
    Pop $R0
    ${If} $R0 = 0
      DetailPrint "停止正在运行的升级程序"
      nsProcess::_KillProcess "${UPDATE_EXE_NAME}"
      Pop $R0
    ${EndIf}

Django admin export inline sub models

Django 导入导出大部分情况都可以使用django-import-export扩展,但是实际业务中经常需要导出子模型数据,比如导出订单同时需要导出订单商品信息。django-import-export扩展默认不支持导出inline子模型,这时候需要自己实现resource的export方法:

自定义django-import-export的export方法

class OrderResource(resources.ModelResource):
    class Meta:
        model = Order

    def export(self, queryset=None, *args, **kwargs):
        if queryset is None:
            queryset = self.get_queryset()
        ds = tablib.Dataset()
        data = []
        for order in queryset:
            for item in order.items.all():
                row = {
                    'order_id': order.id,
                    "item_id": item.idd,
                }
                data.append(row)
        ds.dict = data
        return ds

参考

JSON、BSON及Protocol Buffer比较

他们核心区别在于,bson在json基础上增加了数据日期、文档类型,并支持二进制传输;而protocol buffer则对传输数据和结构定义进行了分离。一般来说与浏览器通信通常使用json,如果需要跨语言通信,且考虑效率,则可以采用protocol buffer。

JSON

特点:

文本存储和传输,结构与数据一体,肉眼可识别

优点:

  1. 通用性好,各种语言都支持;
  2. 可用于存储

缺点:

  1. 采用文本传输,占用体积大,传输性能差
  2. 序列化,反序列化性能较差
  3. 不支持二进制,日期等数据类型

Bson

特点:

采用二进制传输,结构与数据一体

优点:

  1. 在json基础上增加二进制和日期等格式;
  2. 传输性能较好
  3. 序列化,反序列化性能较好

缺点:

  1. 多语言支持一般
  2. 传输数据与结构定义仍然在一体

Protocol Buffer

特点:

结构定义与传输数据分离,只传输二进制数据

优点:

  • 用protoc工具可以根据proto文件生成各种语言对应代码
  • 字段被编号,新添加的字段不影响老结构,解决了向后兼容问题。
  • 二进制无结构消息,效率高,性能高。

缺点:

  • 二进制格式,可读性差(抓包dump后的数据很难看懂)
  • 默认不具备动态特性

django-q — 比django-celery和django-rq更简单又不失强大的django队列

django-q介绍

Django Q is a native Django task queue, scheduler and worker application using Python multiprocessing.

Features

  • Multiprocessing worker pools
  • Asynchronous tasks
  • Scheduled, cron and repeated tasks
  • Signed and compressed packages
  • Failure and success database or cache
  • Result hooks, groups and chains
  • Django Admin integration
  • PaaS compatible with multiple instances
  • Multi cluster monitor
  • Redis, Disque, IronMQ, SQS, MongoDB or ORM
  • Rollbar and Sentry support

Django Q is tested with: Python 3.7 and 3.8, Django 2.2.x and 3.1.x

安装django-q模块

pip install django-q

增加 django_q 到 INSTALLED_APPS:

修改settings.py

INSTALLED_APPS = (
    # other apps
    'django_q',
)

创建数据库表:

运行 Django migrations

$ python manage.py migrate

配置一个broker

使用django orm数据库作为broker

Q_CLUSTER = {
    'name': 'DjangORM',
    'workers': 1,
    'timeout': 90,
    'retry': 120,
    'queue_limit': 50,
    'bulk': 10,
    'orm': 'default'
}

使用redis作为broker

Q_CLUSTER = {
    'redis': 'redis://h:asdfqwer1234asdf@ec2-111-1-1-1.compute-1.amazonaws.com:111'
}

使用django_redis作为broker

Q_CLUSTER = {
    'name': 'DJRedis',
    'workers': 4,
    'timeout': 90,
    'django_redis': 'default'
}

其他broker: https://django-q.readthedocs.io/en/latest/brokers.html

使用qcluster处理异步任务

python manage.py qcluster

增加异步任务到队列

from django_q.tasks import async_task, result

# create the task
async_task('math.copysign', 2, -2)

# or with import and storing the id
import math.copysign

task_id = async_task(copysign, 2, -2)

# get the result
task_result = result(task_id)

# result returns None if the task has not been executed yet
# you can wait for it
task_result = result(task_id, 200)

# but in most cases you will want to use a hook:

async_task('math.modf', 2.5, hook='hooks.print_result')

# hooks.py
def print_result(task):
    print(task.result)

管理后台页面

Django Q不使用自定义页面,而是默认使用Django模型管理员提供的功能。当您打开Django Q的管理页面时,您将看到三种模型:

成功的任务

意味着他们在执行过程中没有遇到任何错误。

file

失败的任务

失败的任务遇到错误,阻止其完成执行。

计划任务

在这里,您可以检查计划任务的状态,创建,编辑或删除它们。

file

排队的任务

仅当您使用Django ORM代理时才出现

参考

使用AutoUpdater.NET实现WPF和Winfoms项目自动更新

使用AutoUpdater.NET实现自动更新

AutoUpdater.NET是一个.net库,允许winforms和wpf应用实现自动更新,只需要以下几步:

1,定义一个升级文件;

<?xml version="1.0" encoding="UTF-8"?>
<item>
    <version>2.0.0.0</version>
    <url>http://rbsoft.org/downloads/AutoUpdaterTest.zip</url>
    <changelog>https://github.com/ravibpatel/AutoUpdater.NET/releases</changelog>
    <mandatory>false</mandatory>
</item>

2, 安装 Autoupdater.NET.Official扩展

PM> Install-Package Autoupdater.NET.Official

3,使用只需要在程序加载前加入以下代码即可

    protected override void OnStartup(StartupEventArgs e)
        {
            AutoUpdater.ParseUpdateInfoEvent += AutoUpdaterOnParseUpdateInfoEvent;
            //AutoUpdater.ReportErrors = true;
            AutoUpdater.Start("https://api.yunyin.la/file-helper/upgrade");
        }

将xml修改为json

        private void AutoUpdaterOnParseUpdateInfoEvent(ParseUpdateInfoEventArgs args)
        {
            dynamic json = JsonConvert.DeserializeObject(args.RemoteData);
            args.UpdateInfo = new UpdateInfoEventArgs
            {
                CurrentVersion = json.version,
                DownloadURL = json.url,
                Mandatory = new Mandatory
                {
                    Value = json.mandatory.value,
                    UpdateMode = json.mandatory.mode,
                }
            };
        }

json样例

{
   "version":"2.0.0.0",
   "url":"http://rbsoft.org/downloads/AutoUpdaterTest.zip",
   "changelog":"https://github.com/ravibpatel/AutoUpdater.NET/releases",
   "mandatory":{
      "value":true,
      "minVersion": "2.0.0.0",
      "mode":1
   },
   "checksum":{
      "value":"E5F59E50FC91A9E52634FFCB11F32BD37FE0E2F1",
      "hashingAlgorithm":"SHA1"
   }
}

参考

WPF点击关闭按钮最小化到系统托盘

包含点击关闭按钮后最小化系统托盘,点击系统托盘图标后自动弹出窗口,点击托盘右键菜单退出


    public partial class MainWindow : Window
    {

        private readonly System.Windows.Forms.NotifyIcon nIcon = new System.Windows.Forms.NotifyIcon();

        public MainWindow()
        {
            InitializeComponent();
            initNotifyIcon();
        }

        private void initNotifyIcon()
        {
            nIcon.Visible = true;
            nIcon.Icon = new Icon("./favicon.ico");
            nIcon.Text = "测试程序";
            nIcon.MouseClick += new System.Windows.Forms.MouseEventHandler(show_Click);
            nIcon.ContextMenu = new System.Windows.Forms.ContextMenu();
            System.Windows.Forms.MenuItem show = new System.Windows.Forms.MenuItem("打开");
            show.Click += new EventHandler(show_Click);
            nIcon.ContextMenu.MenuItems.Add(show);
            System.Windows.Forms.MenuItem exit = new System.Windows.Forms.MenuItem("退出");
            exit.Click += new EventHandler(exit_Click);
            nIcon.ContextMenu.MenuItems.Add(exit);

        }

        private void exit_Click(object sender, EventArgs e)
        {
            Environment.Exit(0);
        }

        private void show_Click(object Sender, EventArgs e)
        {
            if (WindowState == WindowState.Minimized)
                WindowState = WindowState.Normal;
            Show();
            Activate();
        }

        protected override void OnStateChanged(EventArgs e)
        {
            if (WindowState == WindowState.Minimized) Hide();

            base.OnStateChanged(e);
        }

        protected override void OnClosing(CancelEventArgs e)
        {
            e.Cancel = true;
            Hide();
            base.OnClosing(e);
        }

    }

参考